A CONSTITUTION FOR THE
NEWSTATES OF AMERICA, from the book, THE EMERGING CONSTITUTION by Rexford
G. Tugwell, published 1974 (Harper & Row: $20.00) illustrates with
chilling clarity the final objective of regional governance conspirators.
The goal is a corporate state concentrating economic, political and social
powers in the hands of a ruling elite. "A Constitution for the Newstates
of America", is the fortieth version of this revolutionary document
prepared by a team of social experimenters at the CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF
DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS, Fund for the Republic (Ford Foundation), Post
Office Box 4068, Santa Barbara, California 93103.
The Center, its first
objective accomplished, has appointed socialist-oriented University of
Denver Chancellor Maurice B. Mitchell as its new head and may merge with
the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, a Colorado-based world
government policy promotion agency.
Aspen Institute Chairman is
Robert O. Anderson, chief executive officer, Atlantic Richfield Company;
member, Committee for Economic Development (laid ground work for regional
government), and advisory board member, Institute for International
Education. Anderson is the principal figure in campaign aimed at seizing
control of the National Rifle Association.
Constitution for the Newstates of
So that we may join in common
endeavors, welcome the future in good order, and create an adequate and
self-repairing government - we, the people, do establish the Newstates of
America, herein provided to be ours, and do ordain this Constitution whose
supreme law it shall be until the time prescribed for it shall have
SECTION 1. Freedom of
expression, of communication, of movement, of assembly, or of petition
shall not be abridged except in declared emergency.
SECTION 2. Access to
information possessed by governmental agencies shall not be denied except
in the interest of national security; but communications among officials
necessary to decisionmaking shall be privileged.
SECTION 3. Public
communicators may decline to reveal sources of information, but shall be
responsible for hurtful disclosures.
SECTION 4. The privacy
of individuals shall be respected; searches and seizures shall be made
only on judicial warrant; persons shall be pursued or questioned only for
the prevention of crime or the apprehension of suspected criminals, and
only according to rules established under law.
SECTION 5. There shall
be no discrimination because of race, creed, color, origin, or sex. The
Court of Rights and Responsibilities may determine whether selection for
various occupations has been discriminatory.
SECTION 6. All persons
shall have equal protection of the laws, and in all electoral procedures
the vote of every eligible citizen shall count equally with others.
SECTION 7. It shall be
public policy to promote discussion of public issues and to encourage
peaceful public gatherings for this purpose. Permission to hold such
gatherings shall not be denied, nor shall they be interrupted, except in
declared emergency or on a showing of imminent danger to public order and
on judicial warrant.
SECTION 8. The practice
of religion shall be privileged; but no religion shall be imposed by some
on others, and none shall have public support.
SECTION 9. Any citizen
may purchase, sell, lease, hold, convey, and inherit real and personal
property, and shall benefit equally from all laws for security in such
SECTION 10. Those who
cannot contribute to productivity shall be entitled to a share of the
national product; but distribution shall be fair and the total may not
exceed the amount for this purpose held in the National Sharing
SECTION 11. Education
shall be provided at public expense for those who meet appropriate tests
SECTION 12. No person
shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of
law. No property shall be taken without compensation.
Legislatures shall define crimes and conditions requiring restraint, but
confinement shall not be for punishment; and, when possible, there shall
be preparation for return to freedom.
SECTION 14. No person
shall be placed twice in jeopardy for the same offense.
SECTION 15. Writs of
habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in declared emergency.
SECTION 16. Accused
persons shall be informed of charges against them, shall have a speedy
trial, shall have reasonable bail, shall be allowed to confront witnesses
or to call others, and shall not be compelled to testify against
themselves; at the time of arrest they shall be informed of their right to
be silent and to have counsel, provided, if necessary, at public expense;
and courts shall consider the contention that prosecution may be under an
invalid or unjust statute.
SECTION 1. Each freedom
of the citizen shall prescribe a corresponding responsibility not to
diminish that of others: of speech, communication, assembly, and petition,
to grant the same freedom to others; of religion, to respect that of
others; of privacy, not to invade that of others; of the holding and
disposal of property, the obligation to extend the same privilege to
SECTION 2. Individuals
and enterprises holding themselves out to serve the public shall serve all
equally and without intention to misrepresent, conforming to such
standards as may improve health and welfare.
SECTION 3. Protection
of the law shall be repaid by assistance in its enforcement; this shall
include respect for the procedures of justice, apprehension of
lawbreakers, and testimony at trial.
SECTION 4. Each citizen
shall participate in the processes of democracy, assisting in the
selection of officials and in the monitoring of their conduct in
SECTION 5. Each shall
render such services to the nation as may be uniformly required by law,
objection by reason of conscience being adjudicated as hereinafter
provided; and none shall expect or may receive special privileges unless
they be for a public purpose defined by law.
SECTION 6. Each shall
pay whatever share of governmental costs is consistent with fairness to
SECTION 7. Each shall
refuse awards or titles from other nations or their representatives except
as they be authorized by law.
SECTION 8. There shall
be a responsibility to avoid violence and to keep the peace; for this
reason the bearing of arms or the possession of lethal weapons shall be
confined to the police, members of the armed forces, and those licensed
SECTION 9. Each shall
assist in preserving the endowments of nature and enlarging the
inheritance of future generations.
SECTION 10. Those
granted the use of public lands, the air, or waters shall have a
responsibility for using these resources so that, if irreplaceable, they
are conserved and, if replaceable, they are put back as they were.
SECTION 11. Retired
officers of the armed forces, of the senior civil service, and of the
Senate shall regard their service as a permanent obligation and shall not
engage in enterprise seeking profit from the government.
SECTION 12. The
devising or controlling of devices for management or technology shall
establish responsibility for resulting costs.
SECTION 13. All rights
and responsibilities defined herein shall extend to such associations of
citizens as may be authorized by law.
SECTION 1. There shall
be Newstates, each comprising no less than 5 percent of the whole
population. Existing states may continue and may have the status of
Newstates if the Boundary Commission, hereinafter provided, shall so
decide. The Commission shall be guided in its recommendations by the
probability of accommodation to the conditions for effective government.
States electing by referendum to continue if the Commission recommend
otherwise shall nevertheless accept all Newstate obligations.
SECTION 2. The
Newstates shall have constitutions formulated and adopted by processes
SECTION 3. They shall
have Governors, legislatures, and planning, administrative, and judicial
SECTION 4. Their
political procedures shall be organized and supervised by electoral
Overseers; but their elections shall not be in years of presidential
SECTION 5. The
electoral apparatus of the Newstates of America shall be available to
them, and they may be allotted funds under rules agreed to by the national
Overseer; but expenditures may not be made by or for any candidate except
they be approved by the Overseer; and requirements of residence in a
voting district shall be no longer than thirty days.
SECTION 6. They may
charter subsidiary governments, urban or rural, and may delegate to them
powers appropriate to their responsibilities.
SECTION 7. They may
lay, or may delegate the laying of, taxes; but these shall conform to the
restraints stated hereinafter for the Newstates of America.
SECTION 8. They may not
tax exports, may not tax with intent to prevent imports, and may not
impose any tax forbidden by laws of the Newstates of America; but the
objects appropriate for taxation shall be clearly designated.
SECTION 9. Taxes on
land may be at higher rates than those on its improvements.
SECTION 10. They shall
be responsible for the administration of public services not reserved to
the government of the Newstates of America, such activities being
concerted with those of corresponding national agencies, where these
exist, under arrangements common to all.
SECTION 11. The rights
and responsibilities prescribed in this Constitution shall be effective in
the Newstates and shall be suspended only in emergency when declared by
Governors and not disapproved by the Senate of the Newstates of
SECTION 12. Police
powers of the Newstates shall extend to all matters not reserved to the
Newstates of America; but preempted powers shall not be impaired.
SECTION 13. Newstates
may not enter into any treaty, alliance, confederation, or agreement
unless approved by the Boundary Commission hereinafter provided.
may not coin money, provide for the payment of debts in any but legal
tender, or make any charge for inter-Newstate services. They may not enact
ex post facto laws or ones impairing the obligation of contracts.
SECTION 14. Newstates
may not impose barriers to imports from other jurisdictions or impose any
hindrance to citizens' freedom of movement.
SECTION 15. If
governments of the Newstates fail to carry out fully their constitutional
duties, their officials shall be warned and may be required by the Senate,
on the recommendation of the Watchkeeper, to forfeit revenues from the
Newstates of America.
SECTION 1. To arrange for participation by the electorate in the
determination of policies and the selection of officials, there shall be
an Electoral Branch.
SECTION 2. An Overseer
of electoral procedures shall be chosen by majority of the Senate and may
be removed by a two-thirds vote. It shall be the Overseer's duty to
supervise the organization of national and district parties, arrange for
discussion among them, and provide for the nomination and election of
candidates for public office. While in office the Overseer shall belong to
no political organization; and after each presidential election shall
offer to resign.
SECTION 3. A national
party shall be one having had at least a 5 percent affiliation in the
latest general election; but a new party shall be recognized when valid
petitions have been signed by at least 2 percent of the voters in each of
30 percent of the districts drawn for the House of Representatives.
Recognition shall be suspended upon failure to gain 5 percent of the votes
at a second election, 10 percent at a third, or 15 percent at further
District parties shall be recognized when at least 2 percent of the voters
shall have signed petitions of affiliation; but recognition shall be
withdrawn upon failure to attract the same percentages as are necessary
for the continuance of national parties.
SECTION 4. Recognition
by the Overseer shall bring parties within established regulations and
entitle them to common privileges.
SECTION 5. The Overseer
shall promulgate rules for party conduct and shall see that fair practices
are maintained, and for this purpose shall appoint deputies in each
district and shall supervise the choice, in district and national
conventions, of party administrators. Regulations and appointments may be
objected to by the Senate.
SECTION 6. The
Overseer, with the administrators and other officials, shall:
a. Provide the
means for discussion, in each party, of public issues, and, for this
purpose, ensure that members have adequate facilities for
b. Arrange for
discussion, in annual district meetings, of the President's views, of the
findings of the Planning Branch, and such other information as may be
pertinent for enlightened political discussion.
c. Arrange, on
the first Saturday in each month, for enrollment, valid for one year, of
voters at convenient places.
SECTION 7. The Overseer
a. Assist the
parties in nominating candidates for district members of the House of
Representatives each three years; and for this purpose designate one
hundred districts, each with a similar number of eligible voters,
redrawing districts after each election. In these there shall be party
conventions having no more than three hundred delegates, so distributed
that representation of voters be approximately equal.
Candidates for delegate may become eligible by presenting petitions signed
by two hundred registered voters. They shall be elected by party members
on the first Tuesday in March, those having the largest number of votes
being chosen until the three hundred be complete. Ten alternates shall
also be chosen by the same process.
District conventions shall be held on the first Tuesday in April.
Delegates shall choose three candidates for membership in the House of
Representatives, the three having the most votes becoming
b. Arrange for
the election each three years of three members of the House of
Representatives in each district from among the candidates chosen in party
conventions, the three having the most votes to be elected.
SECTION 8. The Overseer
a. Arrange for
national conventions to meet nine years after previous presidential
elections, with an equal number of delegates from each district, the whole
number not to exceed one thousand.
Candidates for delegates shall be eligible when petitions signed by five
hundred registered voters have been filed. Those with the most votes,
together with two alternates, being those next in number of votes, shall
be chosen in each district.
procedures in these conventions for choosing one hundred candidates to be
members-at-large of the House of Representatives, whose terms shall be
coterminous with that of the President. For this purpose delegates shall
file one choice with convention officials. Voting on submissions shall
proceed until one hundred achieve 10 percent, but not more than three
candidates may be resident in any one district; if any district have more
than three, those with the fewest votes shall be eliminated, others being
added from the districts having less than three, until equality be
reached. Of those added, those having the most votes shall be chosen
procedures for the consideration and approval of party objectives by the
rules for the nomination in these conventions of candidates for President
and Vice-Presidents when the offices are to fall vacant, candidates for
nomination to be recognized when petitions shall have been presented by
one hundred or more delegates, pledged to continue support until
candidates can no longer win or until they consent to withdraw. Presidents
and Vice-Presidents, together with Representatives-at-large, shall submit
to referendum after serving for three years, and if they are rejected, new
conventions shall be held within one month and candidates shall be chosen
as for vacant offices.
Candidates for President and Vice-Presidents shall be nominated on
attaining a majority.
e. Arrange for
the election on the first Tuesday in June, in appropriate years, of new
candidates for President and Vice-Presidents, and members-at-large of the
House of Representatives, all being presented to the nation's voters as a
ticket; if no ticket achieve a majority, the Overseer shall arrange
another election, on the third Tuesday in June, between the two persons
having the most votes; and if referendum so determine he shall provide
similar arrangements for the nomination and election of candidates.
In this election, the one having the most votes shall prevail.
SECTION 9. The Overseer
a. Arrange for
the convening of the national legislative houses on the fourth Tuesday of
b. Arrange for
inauguration of the President and Vice-Presidents on the second Tuesday of
SECTION 10. All costs
of electoral procedures shall be paid from public funds, and there shall
be no private contributions to parties or candidates; no contributions or
expenditures for meetings, conventions, or campaigns shall be made; and no
candidate for office may make any personal expenditures unless authorized
by a uniform rule of the Overseer; and persons or groups making
expenditures, directly or indirectly, in support of prospective candidates
shall report to the Overseer and shall conform to his regulations.
SECTION 11. Expenses of
the Electoral Branch shall be met by the addition of one percent to the
net annual taxable income returns of taxpayers, this sum to be held by the
Chancellor of Financial Affairs for disposition by the Overseer.
shall be distributed to parties in proportion to the respective number of
votes cast for the President and Governors at the last election, except
that new parties, on being recognized, shall share in proportion to their
number. Party administrators shall make allocations to legislative
candidates in amounts proportional to the party vote at the last
Expenditures shall be audited by the Watchkeeper; and sums not expended
within four years shall be returned to the Treasury.
shall be a condition of every communications franchise that reasonable
facilities shall be available for allocations by the Overseer.
SECTION 1. There shall
be a Planning Branch to formulate and administer plans and to prepare
budgets for the uses of expected income in pursuit of policies formulated
by the processes provided herein.
SECTION 2. There shall
be a National Planning Board of fifteen members appointed by the
President; the first members shall have terms designated by the President
of one to fifteen years, thereafter one shall be appointed each year; the
President shall appoint a Chairman who shall serve for fifteen years
unless removed by him.
SECTION 3. The Chairman
shall appoint, and shall supervise, a planning administrator, together
with such deputies as may be agreed to by the Board.
SECTION 4. The Chairman
shall present to the Board six- and twelve-year development plans prepared
by the planning staff. They shall be revised each year after public
hearings, and finally in the year before they are to take effect. They
shall be submitted to the President on the fourth Tuesday in July for
transmission to the Senate on September 1 with his comments.
members of the Board fail to approve the budget proposals by the
forwarding date, the Chairman shall nevertheless make submission to the
President with notations of reservation by such members. The President
shall transmit this proposal, with his comments, to the House of
Representatives on September 1.
SECTION 5. It shall be
recognized that the six-and twelve-year development plans represent
national intentions tempered by the appraisal of possibilities. The
twelve-year plan shall be a general estimate of probable progress, both
governmental and private; the six-year plan shall be more specific as to
estimated income and expenditure and shall take account of necessary
purpose shall be to advance, through every agency of government, the
excellence of national life. It shall be the further purpose to anticipate
innovations, to estimate their impact, to assimilate them into existing
institutions, and to moderate deleterious effects on the environment and
six- and twelve-year plans shall be disseminated for discussion and the
opinions expressed shall be considered in the formulation of plans for
each succeeding year with special attention to detail in proposing the
SECTION 6. For both
plans an extension of one year into the future shall be made each year and
the estimates for all other years shall be revised accordingly. For
nongovernmental activities the estimate of developments shall be
calculated to indicate the need for enlargement or restriction.
SECTION 7. If there be
objection by the President or the Senate to the six- or twelve-year plans,
they shall be returned for restudy and resubmission. If there still be
differences, and if the President and the Senate agree, they shall
prevail. If they do not agree, the Senate shall prevail and the plan shall
be revised accordingly.
SECTION 8. The
Newstates, on June 1, shall submit proposals for development to be
considered for inclusion in those for the Newstates of America. Researches
and administration shall be delegated, when convenient, to planning
agencies of the Newstates.
SECTION 9. There shall
be submissions from private individuals or from organized associations
affected with a public interest, as defined by the Board. They shall
report intentions to expand or contract, estimates of production and
demand, probable uses of resources, numbers expected to be employed, and
other essential information.
SECTION 10. The
Planning Branch shall make and have custody of official maps, and these
shall be documents of reference for future developments both public and
private; on them the location of facilities, with extension indicated, and
the intended use of all areas shall be marked out.
Official maps shall also be maintained by the planning agencies of the
Newstates, and in matters not exclusively national the National Planning
Board may rely on these.
Undertakings in violation of official designation shall be at the risk of
the venturer, and there shall be no recourse; but losses from designations
after acquisition shall be recoverable in actions before the Court of
SECTION 11. The
Planning Branch shall have available to it funds equal to one-half of one
percent of the approved national budget (not including debt services or
payments from trust funds). They shall be held by the Chancellor of
Financial Affairs and expended according to rules approved by the Board;
but funds not expended within six years shall be available for other
SECTION 12. Allocations
may be made for the planning agencies of the Newstates; but only the maps
and plans of the national Board, or those approved by them, shall have
status at law.
SECTION 13. In making
plans, there shall be due regard to the interests of other nations and
such cooperation with their intentions as may be approved by the
SECTION 14. There may
also be cooperation with international agencies and such contributions to
their work as are not disapproved by the President.
SECTION 1. The
President of the Newstates of America shall be the head of government,
shaper of its commitments, expositor of its policies, and supreme
commander of its protective forces; shall have one term of nine years,
unless rejected by 60 percent of the electorate after three years; shall
take care that the nation's resources are estimated and are apportioned to
its more exigent needs; shall recommend such plans, legislation, and
action as may be necessary; and shall address the legislators each year on
the state of the nation, calling upon them to do their part for the
SECTION 2. There shall
be two Vice-Presidents elected with the President; at the time of taking
office the President shall designate one Vice-President to supervise
internal affairs; and one to be deputy for general affairs. The deputy for
general affairs shall succeed if the presidency be vacated; the
Vice-President for internal affairs shall be second in succession. If
either Vice-President shall die or be incapacitated, the President, with
the consent of the Senate, shall appoint a successor. Vice-Presidents
shall serve during an extended term with such assignments as the President
the presidency fall vacant through the disability of both Vice-Presidents,
the Senate shall elect successors from among its members to serve until
the next general election.
the Vice-Presidents and other officials the President shall see to it that
the laws are faithfully executed and shall pay attention to the findings
and recommendations of the Planning Board, the National Regulatory Board,
and the Watchkeeper in formulating national policies.
SECTION 3. Responsible
to the Vice-President for General Affairs there shall be Chancellors of
External, Financial, Legal, and Military Affairs.
Chancellor of External Affairs shall assist in conducting relations with
Chancellor of Financial Affairs shall supervise the nation's financial and
monetary systems, regulating its capital markets and credit-issuing
institutions as they may be established by law; and this shall include
lending institutions for operations in other nations or in cooperation
with them, except that treaties may determine their purposes and
Chancellor of Legal Affairs shall advise governmental agencies and
represent them before the courts.
Chancellor of Military Affairs shall act for the presidency in disposing
all armed forces except militia commanded by governors; but these shall be
available for national service at the President's convenience.
Except in declared emergency, the deployment of forces in far waters or in
other nations without their consent shall be notified in advance to a
national security committee of the Senate hereinafter provided.
SECTION 4. Responsible
to the Vice-President for Internal Affairs there shall be chancellors of
such departments as the President may find necessary for performing the
services of government and are not rejected by a two-thirds vote when the
succeeding budget is considered.
SECTION 5. Candidates
for the presidency and the vice-presidencies shall be natural-born
citizens. Their suitability may be questioned by the Senate within ten
days of their nomination, and if two-thirds of the whole agree, they shall
be ineligible and a nominating convention shall be reconvened. At the time
of his nomination no candidate shall be a member of the Senate and none
shall be on active service in the armed forces or a senior civil
SECTION 6. The
President may take leave because of illness or for an interval of relief,
and the Vice-President in charge of General Affairs shall act. The
President may resign if the Senate agree; and, if the term shall have more
than two years to run, the Overseer shall arrange for a special election
for President and Vice-President.
SECTION 7. The
Vice-Presidents may be directed to perform such ministerial duties as the
President may find convenient; but their instructions shall be of record,
and their actions shall be taken as his deputy.
Incapacitation may be established without concurrence of the President by
a three-quarters vote of the Senate, whereupon a successor shall become
Acting President until the disability be declared, by a similar vote, to
be ended or to have become permanent. Similarly the other Vice-President
shall succeed if a predecessor die or be disabled. Special elections, in
these contingencies, may be required by the Senate.
Acting Presidents may appoint deputies, unless the Senate object, to
assume their duties until the next election.
SECTION 9. The
Vice-Presidents, together with such other officials as the President may
designate from time to time, may constitute a cabinet or council; but this
shall not include officials of other branches.
SECTION 10. Treaties or
agreements with other nations, negotiated under the President's authority,
shall be in effect unless objected to by a majority of the Senate within
ninety days. If they are objected to, the President may resubmit and the
Senate reconsider. If a majority still object, the Senate shall
SECTION 11. All
officers, except those of other branches, shall be appointed and may be
removed by the President. A majority of the Senate may object to
appointments within sixty days, and alternative candidates shall be
offered until it agrees.
SECTION 12. The
President shall notify the Planning Board and the House of
Representatives, on the fourth Tuesday in June, what the maximum allowable
expenditures for the ensuing fiscal year shall be.
President may determine to make expenditures less than provided in
appropriations; but, except in declared emergency, none shall be made in
excess of appropriations. Reduction shall be because of changes in
requirements and shall not be such as to impair the integrity of budgetary
SECTION 13. There shall
be a Public Custodian, appointed by the President and removable by him,
who shall have charge of properties belonging to the government, but not
allocated to specific agencies, who shall administer common public
services, shall have charge of building construction and rentals, and
shall have such other duties as may be designated by the President or the
SECTION 14. There shall
be an Intendant responsible to the President who shall supervise Offices
for Intelligence and Investigation; also an Office of Emergency
Organization with the duty of providing plans and procedures for such
contingencies as can be anticipated.
Intendant shall also charter nonprofit corporations (or foundations),
unless the President shall object, determined by him to be for useful
public purposes. Such corporations shall be exempt from taxation but shall
conduct no profitmaking enterprises.
SECTION 15. The
Intendant shall also be a counselor for the coordination of scientific and
cultural experiments, and for studies within the government and elsewhere,
and for this purpose shall employ such assistance as may be found
SECTION 16. Offices for
other purposes may be established and may be discontinued by presidential
order within the funds allocated in the procedures of
(The Senate and the House of
A. The Senate
SECTION 1. There shall
be a Senate with membership as follows: If they so desire, former
Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Principal Justices, Overseers, Chairmen of
the Planning and Regulatory Boards, Governors having had more than seven
years' service, and unsuccessful candidates for the presidency and
vice-presidency who have received at least 30 percent of the vote. To be
appointed by the President, three persons who have been Chancellors, two
officials from the civil services, two officials from the diplomatic
services, two senior military officers, also one person from a panel of
three, elected in a process approved by the Overseer, by each of twelve
such groups or associations as the President may recognize from time to
time to be nationally representative, but none shall be a political or
religious group, no individual selected shall have been paid by any
private interest to influence government, and any association objected to
by the Senate shall not be recognized. Similarly, to be appointed by the
Principal Justice, two persons distinguished in public law and two former
members of the High Courts or the Judicial Council. Also, to be elected by
the House of Representatives, three members who have served six or more
Vacancies shall be filled as they occur.
SECTION 2. Membership
shall continue for life, except that absences not provided for by rule
shall constitute retirement, and that Senators may retire
SECTION 3. The Senate
shall elect as presiding officer a Convener who shall serve for two years,
when his further service may be discontinued by a majority vote. Other
officers, including a Deputy, shall be appointed by the Convener unless
the Senate shall object.
SECTION 4. The Senate
shall meet each year on the second Tuesday in July and shall be in
continuous session, but may adjourn to the call of the Convener. A quorum
shall be more than three-fifths of the whole membership.
SECTION 5. The Senate
shall consider, and return within thirty days, all measures approved by
the House of Representatives (except the annual budget). Approval or
disapproval shall be by a majority vote of those present. Objection shall
stand unless the House of Representatives shall overcome it by a majority
vote plus one; if no return be made, approval by the House of
Representatives shall be final.
consideration of laws passed by the House of Representatives or for other
purposes, the Convener may appoint appropriate committees.
SECTION 6. The Senate
may ask advice from the Principal Justice concerning the constitutionality
of measures before it; and if this be done, the time for return to the
House of Representatives may extend to ninety days.
SECTION 7. If
requested, the Senate may advise the President on matters of public
interest; or, if not requested, by resolution approved by two-thirds of
those present. There shall be a special duty to note expressions of
concern during party conventions and commitments made during campaigns;
and if these be neglected, to remind the President and the House of
Representatives that these undertakings are to be considered.
SECTION 8. In time of
present or prospective danger caused by cataclysm, by attack, or by
insurrection, the Senate may declare a national emergency and may
authorize the President to take appropriate action. If the Senate be
dispersed, and no quorum available, the President may proclaim the
emergency, and may terminate it unless the Senate shall have acted. If the
President be not available, and the circumstances extreme, the senior
serving member of the presidential succession may act until a quorum
SECTION 9. The Senate
may also define and declare a limited emergency in time of prospective
danger, or of local or regional disaster, or if an extraordinary advantage
be anticipated. It shall be considered by the House of Representatives
within three days and, unless disapproved, may extend for a designated
period and for a limited area before renewal.
Extraordinary expenditures during emergency may be approved, without
regard to usual budget procedures, by the House of Representatives with
the concurrence of the President.
SECTION 10. The Senate,
at the beginning of each session, shall select three of its members to
constitute a National Security Committee to be consulted by the President
in emergencies requiring the deployment of the armed forces abroad. If the
Committee dissent from the President's proposal, it shall report to the
Senate, whose decision shall be final.
SECTION 11. The Senate
shall elect, or may remove, a National Watchkeeper, and shall oversee,
through a standing committee, a Watchkeeping Service conducted according
to rules formulated for their approval.
the assistance of an appropriate staff the Watchkeeper shall gather and
organize information concerning the adequacy, competence, and integrity of
governmental agencies and their personnel, as well as their continued
usefulness; and shall also suggest the need for new or expanded services,
making report concerning any agency of the deleterious effect of its
activities on citizens or on the environment.
Watchkeeper shall entertain petitions for the redress of grievances and
shall advise the appropriate agencies if there be need for action.
all these purposes, personnel may be appointed, investigations made,
witnesses examined, postaudits made, and information required.
Convener shall present the Watchkeeper's findings to the Senate, and if it
be judged to be in the public interest, they shall be made public or,
without being made public, be sent to the appropriate agency for its
guidance and such action as may be needed. On recommendation of the
Watchkeeper the Senate may initiate corrective measures to be voted on by
the House of Representatives within thirty days. When approved by a
majority and not vetoed by the President, they shall become law.
the Watchkeeping Service one-quarter of one percent of individual net
taxable incomes shall be held by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs; but
amounts not expended in any fiscal year shall be available for general
B. The House of
SECTION 1. The House of
Representatives shall be the original lawmaking body of the Newstates of
SECTION 2. It shall
convene each year on the second Tuesday in July and shall remain in
continuous session except that it may adjourn to the call of a Speaker,
elected by majority vote from among the Representatives-at-large, who
shall be its presiding officer.
SECTION 3. It shall be
a duty to implement the provisions of this constitution and, in
legislating, to be guided by them.
SECTION 4. Party
leaders and their deputies shall be chosen by caucus at the beginning of
SECTION 5. Standing and
temporary committees shall be selected as follows:
Committees dealing with the calendaring and management of bills shall have
a majority of members nominated to party caucuses by the Speaker; other
members shall be nominated by minority leaders. Membership shall
correspond to the parties' proportions at the last election. If
nominations be not approved by a majority of the caucus, the Speaker or
the minority leaders shall nominate others until a majority shall
Members of other committees shall be chosen by party caucus in proportion
to the results of the last election. Chairmen shall be elected annually
from among at-large members.
referred to committees shall be returned to the house with recommendations
within sixty days unless extension be voted by the House.
all committee actions names of those voting for and against shall be
committee chairman may serve longer than six years.
SECTION 6. Approved
legislation, not objected to by the Senate within the alloted time, shall
be presented to the President for his approval or disapproval. If the
President disapprove, and three-quarters of the House membership still
approve, it shall become law. The names of those voting for and against
shall be recorded. Bills not returned within eleven days shall become
SECTION 7. The
President may have thirty days to consider measures approved by the House
unless they shall have been submitted twelve days previous to
SECTION 8. The House
shall consider promptly the annual budget; if there be objection, it shall
be notified to the Planning Board; the Board shall then resubmit through
the President; and, with his comments, it shall be returned to the House.
If there still be objection by a two-thirds majority, the House shall
prevail. Objection must be by whole title; titles not objected to when
voted on shall constitute appropriation.
budget for the fiscal year shall be in effect on January 1. Titles not yet
acted on shall be as in the former budget until action be
SECTION 9. It shall be
the duty of the House to make laws concerning taxes.
For their laying and collection:
a. They shall be
uniform, and shall not be retroactive.
b. Except such
as may be authorized by law to be laid by Authorities, or by the
Newstates, all collections shall be made by a national revenue agency.
This shall include collections for trust funds hereinafter
c. Except for
corporate levies to be held in the National Sharing Fund, hereinafter
authorized, taxes may be collected only from individuals and only from
incomes; but there may be withholding from current incomes.
d. To assist in
the maintenance of economic stability, the President may be authorized to
alter rates by executive order.
e. They shall be
imposed on profitmaking enterprises owned or conducted by religious
establishments or other nonprofit organizations.
f. There shall
be none on food, medicines, residential rentals, or commodities or
services designated by law as necessities; and there shall be no double
g. None shall be
levied for registering ownership or transfer of property.
For expenditures from revenues:
a. For the
purposes detailed in the annual budget unless objection be made by the
procedure prescribed herein.
b. For such
other purposes as the House may indicate and require the Planning Branch
to include in revisions of the budget; but, except in declared emergency,
the total may not exceed the President's estimate of available
For fixing the percentage of net corporate taxable incomes to be paid into
a National Sharing Fund to be held in the custody of the Chancellor of
Financial Affairs and made available for such welfare and environmental
purposes as are authorized by law.
provide for the regulation of commerce with other nations and among the
Newstates, Possessions, Territories; or, as shall be mutually agreed, with
other organized governments; but exports shall not be taxed; and imports
shall not be taxed except on recommendation of the President at rates
whose allowable variation shall have been fixed bylaw. There shall be no
quotas, and no nations favored by special rates, unless by special acts
requiring two-thirds majorities.
establish, or provide for the establishment of, institutuions for the
safekeeping of savings, for the gathering and distribution of capital, for
the issuance of credit, for regulating the coinage of money, for
controlling them edia of exchange, and for stabilizing prices; but such
institutions, when not public or semipublic, shall be regarded as affected
with the public interest and shall be supervised by the Chancellor of
establish institutions for insurance against risks and liabilities, or to
provide suitable agencies for the regulation of such as are not
ensure the maintenance, by ownership or regulation, of facilities for
communication, transportation, and others commonly used and necessary for
assist in the maintenance of world order, and, for this purpose, when the
President shall recommend, to vest jurisdiction in international
legislative, judicial, or administrative agencies.
develop with other peoples, and for the benefit of all, the resources of
space, of other bodies in the universe, and of the seas beyond twelve
miles from low-water shores unless treaties shall provide other
To assist other peoples who have not attained satisfactory levels of
well-being; to delegate the administration of funds for assistance,
whenever possible, to international agencies; and to invest in or
contribute to the furthering of development in other parts of the
To assure, or to assist in assuring, adequate and equal facilities for
education; for training in occupations citizens may be fitted to pursue;
and to reeducate or retrain those whose occupations may become
To establish or to assist institutions devoted to higher education, to
research, or to technical training.
To establish and maintain, or assist in maintaining, libraries, archives,
monuments, and other places of historic interest.
To assist in the advancement of sciences and technologies; and to
encourage cultural activities.
To conserve natural resources by purchase, by withdrawal from use, or by
regulation; to provide, or to assist in providing, facilities for
recreation; to establish and maintain parks, forests, wilderness areas,
wetlands, and prairies; to improve streams and other waters; to ensure the
purity of air and water; to control the erosion of soils; and to provide
for all else necessary for the protection and common use of the national
To acquire property and improvements for public use at costs to be fixed,
if necessary, by the Court of Claims.
To prevent the stoppage or hindrance of governmental procedures, or of
other activities affected with a public interest as defined by law, by
reason of disputes between employers and employees, or for other reasons,
and for this purpose to provide for conclusive arbitration if adquate
provision for collective bargaining fail. From such finding there may be
appeal to the Court of Arbitration Review; but such proceedings may not
stay the acceptance of findings.
To support an adequate civil service for the performance of such duties as
may be designated by administrators; and for this purpose to refrain from
interference with the processes of appointment or placement, asking advice
or testimony before committees only with the consent of appropriate
To provide for the maintenance of armed forces.
To enact such measures as will assist families in making adjustment to
future conditions, using estimates concerning population and resources
made by the Planning Board.
To vote within ninety days on such measures as the President may designate
SECTION 1. There shall
be a Regulatory Branch, and there shall be a National Regulator chosen by
majority vote of the Senate and remoable by a two-thirds vote of that
body. His term shall be seven years, and he shall preside over a National
Regulatory Board. Together they shall make and administer rules for the
conduct of all economic enterprises.
Regulatory Branch shall have such agencies as the Board may find necessary
and are not disapproved by law.
SECTION 2. The
Regulatory Board shall consist of seventeen members recommended to the
Senate by the Regulator. Unless rejected by majority vote they shall act
with the Regulator as a lawmaking body for industry.
shall initially have terms of one or seventeen years, one being replaced
each year and serving for seventeen years. They shall be compensated and
shall have no other occupation.
SECTION 3. Under
procedures approved by the board, the Regulator shall charter all
corporations or enterprises except those exempted because of sixe or other
characteristics, or those supervised by the Chancellor of Financial
Affairs, or by the Intendant, or those whose activities are confined to
Charters shall describe proposed activities, and departure from these
shall require amendment on penalty of revocation. For this purpose there
shall be investigation and enforcement services under the direction of the
SECTION 4. Chartered
enterprises in similar industries or occupations may organize joint
Authorities. These may formulate among themselves codes to ensure fair
competition, meet external costs, set standards for quality and service,
expand trade, increase production, eliminate waste, and assist in
standardization. Authorities may maintain for common use services for
research and communcation; but membership shall be open to all eligible
enterprises. Nonmembers shall be required to maintain the same standards
at those prescribed for members.
SECTION 5. Authorities
shall have governing committees of five, two being appointed by the
Regulator to represent the public. they shall serve as he may determine;
they shall be compensated; and he shall take care that there be no
conflicts of interest. The Board may approve or prescribe rules for the
distribution of profits to stockholders, allowable amounts of working
capital, and reserves. Costing and all other practices affecting the
public interest shall be monitored.
codes shall be subject to review by the Regulator with his Board.
SECTION 6. Member
enterprises of an Authority shall be exempt from other regulation.
SECTION 7. The
Regulator, with his Board, shall fix standards and procedures for mergers
of enterprises or the acquisition of some by others; and these shall be in
effect unless rejected by the Court of Administrative Settlements. The
purpose shall be to encourage adaptation to change and to further approved
intentions for the nation.
SECTION 8. The charters
of enterprises may be revoked and Authorities may be dissolved by the
Regulator, with the concurrence of the Board, if they restrict the
production of goods and services, or controls of their prices; also if
external costs are not assessed to their originators or if the ecological
impacts of their operations are deleterious.
SECTION 9. Operations
extending abroad shall conform to policies notified to the Regulator by
the President; and he shall restrict or control such activities as appear
to injure the national interest.
SECTION 10. The
Regulator shall make rules for and shall supervise marketplaces for goods
and services; but this shall not include security exchanges regulated by
the Chancellor of Financial Affairs.
SECTION 11. Designation
of enterprises affected with a public interest, rules for conduct of
enterprises and of their Authorities, and other actions of the Regulator
or of the Board may be appealed to the Court of Administrative
Settlements, whose judgments shall be informed by the intention to
establish fairness to consumer and competitors and stability in economic
SECTION 12. Responsible
also to the Regulator, there shall be an Operations Commission appointed
by the Regulator, unless the Senate object, for the supervision of
enterprises owned in whole or in part by government. The commission shall
choose its chairman, and he shall be the executive head of a supervisory
staff. He may require reports, conduct investigations, and make rules and
recommendations concerning surpluses or deficits, the absorption of
external costs, standards of service, and rates or oprices charged for
services or goods.
enterprise shall have a director, chosen and removable by the Commission;
and he shall conduct its affairs in accordance with standards fixed by the
SECTION 1. There shall
be a Principal Justice of the Newstates of America; a Judicial Council;
and a Judicial Assembly. There shall also be a Supreme Court and a High
Court of Appeals; also Courts of Claims, Rights and Duties, Administrative
Review, Arbitration Settlements, Tax Appeals, and Appeals from
Watchkeeper's Findings. There shall be Circuit Courts to be of first
resort in suits brought under national law; and they shall hear appeals
from courts of the Newstates.
Other courts may be
established by law on recommendation of the Principal Justice with the
SECTION 2. The Principal
Justice shall preside over the judicial system, shall appoint the members
of all national courts, and, unless the Judicial Council object, shall
make its rules; also, through an Administrator, supervise its
SECTION 3. The Judicial
Assembly shall consist of Circuit Court Judges, together with those of the
High Courts of the Newstates of America and those of the highest courts of
the Newstates. It shall meet annually, or at the call of the Principal
Justice, to consider the state of the Judiciary and such other matters as
may be laid before it.
shall also meet at the call of the Convener to nominate three candidates
for the Principal Justiceship whenever a vacancy shall occur. From these
nominees the Senate shall choose the one having the most votes.
SECTION 4. The
Principal Justice, unless the Senate object to any, shall appoint a
Judicial Council of five members to serve during his incumbency. He shall
designate a senior member who shall preside in his absence.
shall be the duty of the Council, under the direction of the Principal
Justice, to study the courts in operation, to prepare codes of ethics to
be observed by members, and to suggest changes in procedure. The Council
may ask the advice of the Judicial Assembly.
shall also be a duty of the Council, as hereinafter provided, to suggest
constitutional amendments when they appear to be necessary; and it shall
also draft revisions if they shall be required. Further, it shall examine,
and from time to time cause to be revised, civil and criminal codes;
these, when approved by the Judicial Assembly, shall be in effect
throughout the nation.
SECTION 5. The
Principal Justice shall have a term of eleven years; but if at any time
the incumbent resign to be disabled from continuing in office, as may be
determined by the Senate, replacement shall be by the senior member of the
Judicial Council until a new selection be made. After six years the
Assembly may provide, by a two-thirds vote, for discontinuance in office,
and a successor shall then be chosen.
SECTION 6. The
Principal Justice may suspend members of any court for incapacity or
violation of rules; and the separation shall be final if a majority of the
each court the Principal Justice shall, from time to time, appoint a
member sho shall preside.
SECTION 7. A presiding
judge may decide, with the concurrence of the senior judge, that there may
be pretrial proceedings, that criminal trials shall be conducted by either
investigatory or adversary proceedings, and whether there shall be a jury
and what the number of jurors shall be; but investigatory proceedings
shall require a bench of three.
SECTION 8. In deciding
on the concordance of statutes with the Constitution, the Supreme Court
shall return to the House of Representatives such as it cannot construe.
If the House fail to make return within ninety days the Court may
SECTION 9. The
Principal Justice, or the President, may grant pardons or
SECTION 10. The High
Courts shall have thirteen members; but nine members, chosen by their
senior justices from time to time, shall constitute a court. The justices
on leave shall be subject to recall.
courts shall have nine members; but seven, chosen by their seniors, shall
constitute a court.
shall be in continuous session except for recesses approved by the
SECTION 11. The
Principal Justice, with the Council, may advise the Senate, when
requested, concerning the appropriateness of measures approved by the
House of Representatives; and may also advise the President, when
requested, on matters he may refer for consultation.
SECTION 12. It shall be
for other branches to accept and to enforce judicial decrees.
SECTION 13. The High
Court of Appeals may select applications for further consideration by the
Supreme Court, of decisions reached by other courts, including those of
the Newstates. If it agree that there be a constitutional issue it may
make preliminary judgment to be reviewed without hearing, and finally, by
the Supreme Court.
SECTION 14. The Supreme
Court may decide:
a. Whether, in
litigation coming to it on appeal, constitutional provisions have been
violated or standards have not been met.
b. On the
application of constitutional provisions to suits involving the
international law, as recognized in treaties, United Nations agreements,
or arranagements with other nations, has been ignored or violated.
d. Other causes
involving the interpretation of constitutional provisions; except that in
holding any branch to have exceeded its powers the decision shall be
suspended until the Judicial Council shall have determined whether, in
order to avoid confrontation, procedures for amendment of the Constitution
amendatory proceedings are instituted, decision shall await the
SECTION 15. The Courts
of the Newstates shall have initial jurisdiction in cases arising under
their laws except those involving the Newstate itself or those reserved
for national courts by a rule of the Principal Justice with the Judicial
Qualifications for participation in democratic procedures as a citizen,
and eligibility for office, shall be subject to repeated study and
redefinition; but any change in qualification or eligibility shall become
effective only if not disapproved by the Congress.
this purpose a permanent Citizenship and Qualifications Commission shall
be constituted, four members to be appointed by the President, three by
the Convener of the Senate, three by the Speaker of the House, and three
by the Principal Justice. Vacancies shall be filled as they occur. The
members shall choose a chairman; they shall have suitable assistants and
accommodations; and they may have other occupations. Recommendations of
the commission shall be presented to the President and shall be
transmitted to the House of Representatives with comments. They shall have
a preferred place on the calendar and, if approved, shall be in
SECTION 2. Areas
necessary for the uses of government may be acquired at its valuation and
may be maintained as the public interest may require. Such areas shall
have self-government in matters of local concern.
SECTION 3. The
President may negotiate for the acquisition of areas outside the Newstates
of America, and, if the Senate approve, may provide for their organization
as Possessions or Territories.
SECTION 4. The
President may make agreements with other organized peoples for a relation
other than full membership in the Newstates of America. They may become
citizens and may participate in the selection of officials. They may
receive assistance for their development or from the National Sharing Fund
if they conform to its requirements; and they may serve in civilian or
military services, but only as volunteers. They shall be represented in
the House of Representatives by members elected at large, their number
proportional to their constituencies; but each shall have at least one;
and each shall in the same way choose one permanent member of the
SECTION 5. The
President, the Vice-Presidents, and members of the legislative houses
shall in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace by
exempt from penalty for anything they may say while pursuing public
duties; but the Judicial Council may make restraining rules.
SECTION 6. Except as
otherwise provided by this Constitution, each legislative house shall
establish its requirements for membership and may make rules for the
conduct of members, including conflicts of interest, providing its own
disciplines for their infraction.
SECTION 7. No Newstate
shall interfere with officials of the Newstates of America in the
performance of their duties, and all shall give full faith and credit to
the Acts of other Newstates and of the Newstates of America.
SECTION 8. Public funds
shall be expended only as authorized in this Constitution.
SECTION 1. Officers of
the Newstates of America shall be those named in this Constitution,
including those of the legislative houses and others authorized by law to
be appointed; they shall be compensated, and none may have other paid
occupation unless they be excepted by law; none shall occupy more than one
position in government; and no gift or favor shall be accepted if in any
way related to official duty.
income from former employments or associations shall continue for their
benefits; but their properties may be put in trust and managed without
their intervention during continuance in office. Hardships under this rule
may be considered by the Court of Rights and Duties, and exceptions may be
made with due regard to the general intention.
SECTION 2. The
President, the Vice-Presidents, and the Principal Justice shall have
households appropriate to their duties. The President, the Vice-President,
the Principal Justice, the Chairman of the Planning Board, the Regulator,
the Watchkeeper, and the Overseer shall have salaries fixed by law and
continued for life; but if they become members of the Senate, they shall
have senatorial compensation and shall conform to senatorial
Justices of the High Courts shall have no term; and their salaries shall
be two-thirds that of the Principal Justice; they, and members of the
Judicial Council, unless they shall have become Senators, shall be
permanent members of the Judiciary and shall be available for assignment
by the Principal Justice.
Salaries for members of the Senate shall be the same as for Justices of
the High Court of Appeals.
SECTION 3. Unless
otherwise provided herein, officials designated by the head of a branch as
sharers in policymaking may be appointed by him with the President's
concurrence and unless the Senate shall object.
SECTION 4. There shall
a. for executive
offices and official households, appointed by authority of the
b. for the
national courts, appointed by the Principal Justice;
c. for the Legislative Branch, selected by a committee of members from
each house (chosen by the Convener and the Speaker), three from the House
of Representatives and four from the Senate.
Appropriations shall be made to them; but those for the Presidency shall
not be reduced during his term unless with his consent; and those for the
Judicial Branch shall not be reduced during five years succeeding their
determination, unless with the consent of the Principal Justice.
SECTION 5. The fiscal
year shall be the same as the calendar year, with new appropriations
available at its beginning.
SECTION 6. There shall
be an Officials' Protective Service to guard the President, the
Vice-Presidents, the Principal Justice, and other officials whose safety
may be at hazard; and there shall be a Protector appointed by and
responsible to a standing committee of the Senate. Protected officials
shall be guided by procedures approved by the committee.
service, at the request of the Political Overseer, may extend its
protection to candidates for office; or to other officials, if the
committee so decide.
SECTION 7. A suitable
contingency fund shall be made available to the President for purposes
defined by law.
SECTION 8. The Senate
shall try officers of government other than legislators when such officers
are impeached by a two-third vote of the House of Representatives for
conduct prejudicial to the public interest. If Presidents or
Vice-Presidents are to be tried, the Senate, as constituted, shall conduct
the trial. Judgments shall not extend beyond removal from office and
disqualification for holding further office; but the convicted official
shall be liable to further prosecution.
SECTION 9. Members of
legislative houses may be impeached by the Judicial Council; but for
trials it shall be enlarged to seventeen by Justices of the High Courts
appointed by the Principal Justice. If convicted, members shall be
expelled and be ineligible for future public office; and they shall also
be liable for trial as citizens.
SECTION 1. It being the special duty of the Judicial Council to
formulate and suggest amendments to this Constitution, it shall, from time
to time, make proposals, through the Principal Justice, to the Senate. The
Senate, if it approve, and if the President agree, shall instruct the
Overseer to arrange at the next national election for submission of the
amendment to the electorate. If not disapproved by a majority, it shall
become part of this Constitution. If rejected, it may be restudied and a
new proposal submitted.
shall be the purpose of the amending procedure to correct deficiencies in
the Constitution, to extend it when new responsibilities require, and to
make government responsible to needs of the people, making use of advances
in managerial competence and establishing security and stability; also to
preclude changes in the Constitution resulting from interpretation.
SECTION 2. When this
Constitution shall have been in effect for twenty-five years the Overseer
shall ask, by referendum, whether a new Constitution shall be prepared. If
a majority so decide, the Council, making use of such advice as may be
available, and consulting those who have made complaint, shall prepare a
new draft for submission at the next election. If not disapproved by a
majority it shall be in effect. If disapproved it shall be redrafted and
resubmitted with such changes as may be then appropriate to the
circumstances, and it shall be submitted to the voters at the following
not disapproved by a majority it shall be in effect. If disapproved it
shall be restudied and resubmitted.
SECTION 1. The
President is authorized to assume such powers, make such appointments, and
use such funds as are necessary to make this Constitution effective as
soon as possible after acceptance by a referendum he may initiate.
SECTION 2. Such members
of the Senate as may be at once available shall convene and, if at least
half, shall constitute sufficient membership while others are being added.
They shall appoint an Overseer to arrange for electoral organization and
elections for the offices of government; but the President and
Vice-Presidents shall serve out their terms and then become members of the
Senate. At that time the presidency shall be constituted as provided in
SECTION 3. Until each
indicated change in the government shall have been completed the
provisions of the existing Constitution and the organs of government shall
be in effect.
SECTION 4. All
operations of the national government shall cease as they are replaced by
those authorized under this Constitution.
President shall determine when replacement is complete.
President shall cause to be constituted an appropriate commission to
designate existing laws inconsistent with this Constitution, and they
shall be void; also the commission shall assist the President and the
legislative houses in the formulating of such laws as may be consistent
with the Constitution and necessary to its implementation.
SECTION 5. For
establishing Newstates boundaries a commission of thirteen, appointed by
the President, shall make recommendations within one year. For this
purpose the members may take advice and commission studies concerning
resources, population, transportation, communication, economic and social
arranagements, and such other conditions as may be significant. The
President shall transmit the commission's report to the Senate. After
entertaining, if convenient, petitions for revision, the Senate shall
report whether the recommendations are satisfactory but the President
shall decide whether they shall be accepted or shall be returned for
Existing states shall not be divided unless metropolitan areas extending
over more than one state are to be included in one Newstate, or unless
other compelling circumstances exist; and each Newstate shall possess
harmonious regional characteristics.
Commission shall continue while the Newstates make adjustments among
themselves and shall have jurisdiction in disputes arising among
SECTION 6. Constitution
of the Newstates shall be established as arranged by the Judicial Council
and the Principal Justice.
procedures shall be as follows: Constitutions shall be drafted by the
highest courts of the Newstates. There shall then be a convention of one
hundred delegates chosen in special elections in a procedure approved by
the Overseer. If the Constitution be not rejected it shall be in effect
and the government shall be constituted. If it be rejected, the Principal
Justice, advised by the Judicial Council, shall promulgate a Constitution
and initiate revisions to be submitted for approval at a time he shall
appoint. If it again be rejected he shall promulgate another, taking
account of objections, and it shall be in effect. A Constitution, once in
effect, shall be valid for twenty-five years as herein provided.
SECTION 7. Until
Governors and legislatures of the Newstates are seated, their governments
shall continue, except that the President may appoint temporary Governors
to act as executives until suceeded by those regularly elected. These
Governors shall succeed to the executive functions of the states as they
become one of the Newstates of America.
SECTION 8. The
indicated appointments, elections, and other arrangements shall be made
with all deliberate speed.
SECTIONN 9. The first
Judicial Assembly for selecting a register of candidates for the Principal
Justiceship of the Newstates of America shall be called by the incumbent
Chief Justice immediately upon ratification.
SECTION 10. Newstates
electing by referendum not to comply with recommendations of the Boundary
Commission, as approved by the Senate, shall have deducted from taxes
collected by the Newstates of America for transmission to them a
percentage equal to the loss in efficiency from failure to comply.
Estimates shall be made by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs and
approved by the President; but the deduction shall not be less than 7
SECTION 11. When this
Constitution has been implemented the President may delete by proclamation
appropriate parts of this article.